Category / Labor market

    Loading posts...
  • Manager explaining with a staff member

    People in leadership positions

    People in leadership positions often have more influence and prestige but also more responsibility and stress than other employees. In terms of personality, they often differ from others even before taking the leap into leadership. Leaders aren’t born—they develop over time, often starting long before they take on a leadership role,” says Eva Asselmann,

    one of two psychologists who analyzed data from the study “Living in Germany” to find out exactly how people become leaders. Asselmann and her colleague Jule Specht analyzed data on nearly 2,700 leaders and 33,700 non-leaders

    and found that in the years before entering leadership, leaders are more extroverted, open, emotionally stable, conscientious, and willing to take risks than non-leaders. They also believe more strongly that they have control over their own lives, and they place more trust in other people.

    These characteristics gradually return to baseline levels after individuals take on a leadership role. But self-esteem continues to increase in leaders over the long term.

    Further information

    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin: You are not born to be a leader

    All results in the overview

    Photo by CoWomen on Unsplash

  • Roboter mit Tablet

    Smart Machines

    When people hear the term “artificial intelligence” (AI), they often think of smart robots in a distant future. Yet many people are already using AI in their work today—but without knowing it. These are among the findings of a recent study published as a DIW Berlin Wochenbericht based on data from Living in Germany.

    According to the study, only 20 percent of those surveyed answered “yes” to the direct question of whether they had come into contact with AI at work. However, almost twice as many respondents answered “yes” to indirect questions about AI—for instance, whether they used functions such as speech recognition or automated image processing at work on a daily basis. This shows that many people are unaware that AI is already part of their everyday working lives.

    For many, the topic of AI is linked to the question of whether automation will eliminate jobs. “AI-based systems are being developed to replace some tasks that humans can do,” said DIW researcher Alexandra Fedorets, “they will take over some of the tasks, but by no means all.”

     

    Further information

    DIW Berlin: Künstliche Intelligenz ist für viele Erwerbstätige bereits Teil der alltäglichen Arbeit

    ftd.de: Viele arbeiten mit KI, ohne es zu wissen

    All results in the overview

     …

  • Woman caring for elderly gentleman with cane, she supports him and carries his shopping bag

    Low-income workers need supportive care services six years earlier

    New analyses based on data from the study Living in Germany show that people with lower incomes have a higher risk of needing supportive care and nursing services. Men at risk of poverty are likely to need care almost six years earlier than higher-earning men, while women need care around three and a half years earlier.

    Occupation also plays a role. On average, blue-collar workers need supportive care and nursing services about four years earlier than civil servants. In addition, men and women with high-stress jobs need supportive care and nursing services on average 4.7 and 2.7 years earlier, respectively.

    “In Germany, there is social inequality not just in income and life expectancy, but also in the risk of needing care,” says DIW expert Peter Haan, who worked with colleagues from the SOEP in conducting the study.

    Further information

    FAZ.net: Ärmere werden häufiger und früher pflegebedürftig

    DIW Berlin: Ärmere Menschen werden häufiger und früher pflegebedürftig als Besserverdienende

    All results in the overview

  • Woman with an apron pushes a cart with towels

    Higher Wages

    The likely future coalition partners in the German government—SPD, Greens, and FDP—want to raise the statutory minimum wage to 12 euros per hour in their first year as governing coalition. This could benefit women in particular, as well as people working in retail, catering, healthcare, and building maintenance. These findings are the result of a study by researchers from the Hans Böckler Foundation’s Institute of Economic and Social Research (WSI) based on data from Living in Germany and the Federal Statistical Office.

    According to the study, 7.3 million people currently earn less than 12 euros an hour in their main job and another 1.3 million in a second job. Of these approximately 8.6 million people who would benefit from an increase in the minimum wage, around two-thirds are women.

     

    Further information

    Frauen, Einzelhandel, Gastronomie: Wer besonders von der Anhebung des Mindestlohns profitieren würde

    Rund 8,6 Millionen Beschäftige verdienen aktuell weniger als 12 Euro in der Stunde – vor allem in Jobs ohne Tarifvertrag

     

    All results in the overview

  • older woman sitting at a table with a laptop

    Working in Retirement

    Some people can hardly wait to retire while others would never consider it. In fact, more and more people are continuing to work after retirement: While 3.3 percent of those over the age of 64 were still working in 2005, 7.8 percent were still working in 2019.

    But are people working in retirement due to financial need, as is commonly believed? Holger Schäfer, an economist at the German Economic Institute in Cologne, has come to a different conclusion based on an analysis of data from Living in Germany. If retirees were working because they needed the money, their pensions would have to have extremely low— but as Schäfer’s analysis shows, this is not the case.

    The results of other studies also suggest that financial motives play a subordinate role. “Previous studies have shown that people enjoy working and being in contact with others, and that this is more important to them than the extra money,” says Holger Schäfer.

    Further information

    Einkommen: Arbeitende Rentner haben überdurchschnittlich viel Geld

    Warum Rentner arbeiten gehen

    All results in the overview

    Photo Anna Shvets on Pexels

  • Educator sits in hallway of a daycare center

    Overworked and undervalued

    Pre-school educators are essential, not just for families but for society as a whole, as almost everyone would agree. Nevertheless, pre-school educators still contend with difficult working conditions.

    According to a new study based on data from “Living in Germany”, 80 percent of pre-school educators feel they are underpaid. But it’s not just this feeling that creates stress: About 75 percent also report high time pressures and a heavy workload. Many also rate their chances of promotion as poor. In addition, around 70 percent complain about a lack of recognition from their superiors.

    “During the Corona pandemic, the stresses on educators have increased even further,” says DIW education expert Katharina Spieß, who conducted the study together with her colleague Ludovica Gambaro. Given that increasing numbers of parents were able to place their children in emergency daycare over the course of the pandemic, pre-school educators were responsible for approximately the same number of children during the pandemic as they were under normal conditions. Simultaneously, educators had the added burden of following hygiene regulations. The stress was compounded by worries about their own health.


    Further information

    Around 80 percent of educators think their salary is too low

    DIW Berlin: Eight out of ten nursery school teachers in Germany feel burdened by inadequate salaries

    All results in the overview

  • Jogger on beach

    People want to work less

    People in Germany would prefer to work less, even if it meant earning less. On average, men would prefer to work just 36 hours per week, as compared to 39 hours in 2007. Women would also like to work less: Recent data show that they would prefer to work 29.5 hours per week.

    A comparison of men’s and women’s preferred working hours shows a convergence in preferences over time. In 2000, women wanted to work nine hours less than men, and now just six and a half hours less.

    In the early aughts, people’s preferred number of working hours was still rising. This changed after Germany overcame a phase of major unemployment. These findings from the study “Living in Germany” were published in an article in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung.


    Further information

    Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung: Germans want to work less and less

    All results in the overview

  • Man in a closed restaurant

    Mini-job holders are among the biggest losers in the corona crisis

    The corona crisis has had significant impacts on workers in mini-jobs. In June 2020, for instance, regular employment fell by just 0.2 percent, while mini-jobs fell by 12 percent. Women were hit particularly hard by these job losses. An article published by Spiegel online presented research findings based on data from “Living in Germany.” “A reform of the mini-job sector is long overdue,” says study author Markus Grabka, one of the researchers on the SOEP team at DIW Berlin.

    Further information

    Der Spiegel: Minijobberinnen in der Pandemie, Von 450 Euro auf null

    DIW Berlin: Beschäftige in Minijobs sind VerliererInnen der coronabedingten Rezession

    All results in the overview